Glossary of Die Casting Terms
Automation - Industry term commonly used to describe the mechanization of various aspects of die casting process.
Biscuit - Excess of ladled metal remaining in the shot sleeve of a cold chamber die casting machine. It is part of a cast shot and is removed from the die with the casting.
Blister - A surface bubble caused by gas expansion (usually from heating) which was trapped within the die casting or beneath the plating.
Blow holes - Voids or pores which may occur due to entrapped gas or shrinkage during solidification, usually evident in heavy sections. (See porosity)
Cavity - The recess or impressions in a die in which the casting is formed.
Cold chamber machine - A type of die casting machine in which the metal injection mechanism is not submerged in molten metal.
Checking - Fine cracks on the surface a die which produce corresponding raised veins on die casting. Caused by repeated heating of the die surface by injected molten alloys. Also called heat checking.
Die lubricant - Liquid formulations applied to the die to facilitate casting release and prevent soldering.
Dimensional stability - Ability of a component to retain it's shape and size over a long period of service.
Draft - The taper given to walls, cores and other parts of the die cavity to permit easy ejection of the casting.
Ejector marks - Marks left on castings by ejector pins.
Ejector pins - A rod which forces the casting out of the die cavity and off cores.
Ejector plate - A plate to which ejector pins are attached and which actuates them.
Fillet - Curved junction of two surfaces, e.g., walls which would meet a sharp angle.
Flash - A thin web or fin of metal on a casting which occurs on die partings, vents and around moveable cores. This excess metal is due to working and operating clearances in a die.
Gate - Passage for molten metal which connects runner with die cavity. Also, the entire ejected content of a die, including castings, gates, runners sprue (or biscuit) and flash.
Growth - Expansion of a casting as a result of aging or of intergranular corrosion, or both.
Heat checking - (See checking)
Hot chamber machine - Die casting machines which have the plunger, gooseneck (metal pressure chamber) immersed in molten metal in the holding furnace.
Impact strength - Ability to resist shock, as measured by a suitable testing machine.
Ingot - Metal or alloy cast in a convenient shape for storage shipping or remelting.
Injection - The processes of forcing molten metal into a die.
Insert - A piece of material, usually metal, which is placed in a die before each shot. When molten metal is cast around it, it becomes an integral part of the die casting.
Loose piece, knockout - A type of core (which forms undercuts) which is positioned in, but not fastened to a die. It is so arranged as to be ejected with the casting and from which it is removed. It is repeated for the same purpose.
Metal saver - Core used primarily to reduce amount of metal in a casting and to avoid sections of excessive thickness.
Multiple cavity die - A die having more than one duplicate impression.
Overflow - A recess in a die connected to die cavity by a gate to assist in proper venting.
Parting line - A mark left on die casting where the die halves meet; also, the mating surface of the cover and ejector portions of the die.
Plunger - Ram or piston which forces molten metal into a die.
Porosity - Voids or pores resulting from trapped gas, or shrinkage during solidification.
Process control - Where parameters of a process are studied and correctly applied in the manufacturing process to produce high quality parts.
Runner - Die passage connecting sprue or plunger holes of a die to the gate where molten metal enters the cavity or cavities.
Shot - The segment of the casting cycle in which molten metal is forced into the die.
Shrinkage, solidification - Dimensional reduction that accompanies the freezing (solidification) of metal, passing from the molten to the solid state.
Shrink mark - A surface depression which sometimes occurs next to a heavy section that cools more slowly than adjacent areas.
Slide - The portion of a die arranged to move parallel to die parting. The inner and end forms a part of the die cavity wall that involves one or more undercuts and sometimes includes a core or cores.
Soldering - Adherence of molten metal to portion of the die.
Trim die - A die for shearing or shaving flash from a die casting.
Unit die - A die interchangeable with others in a common holder.
Undercut - Recess in the side wall or cored hole of a casting disposed so that a slide or special form of core (such as a knockout) is required to permit ejection of the casting from the die.
Vent - Narrow passage at the die parting which permits air to escape from the die cavity as it is filled with molten metal.
Void - A large pore or hole within the wall of a casting usually caused by entrapped gas. A blow hole.
Waterline - A tube or passage though which water is circulated to cool a casting die.
Die Casting Processes
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